Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction

By Bailey, Rachel
Mayer, R. (2008). Applying the science of learning: Evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. American Psychologist, November, 760-769.

Summary: This article combines the science of learning and instruction. After conducting numerous research trials, the author concludes that some multi-media led instructional strategies are more conducive to learning than others. In the article he highlights 10 effective principles of multimedia instruction. Here are his findings:

  1. Eliminate extraneous material.
  2. Highlight essential material.
  3. Present pictures and spoken words rather than pictures spoken words, and printed words.
  4. Place printed text next to the corresponding part of the graphic.
  5. Present corresponding graphics and words at the same time.
  6. Break a continuous lesson into learner-paced parts.
  7. Provide pre-training on the names, locations, and characteristics of key concepts.
  8. Present graphics with spoken text rather than graphics with printed text.
  9. Present words and pictures rather than words alone.
  10. Present words in conversational style rather than formal style.
Evaluation: The author’s findings make sense to me. I especially like number three, which reminds the instruction to not include all the printed words on a slide when given a presentation. This is too distracting for the listener and they have a hard time deciding what to focus on.  When I taught middle school, I noticed that students often put all the text on their presentation slide. This makes for a boring presentation for the listener. I also like number 10. If a presentation is more conversational, the learner is more likely to tune into what is being said. 

The Stigma around Teacher Librarians

While “stigma” may be a strong term to describe certain stereotypes about teacher librarians, this light and simple article describes ten factors that historically have created a certain association of habits and behaviors for teacher librarians. Some of the traditional values connected to library work are so accurate that the article holds humor in the truth. Poking fun at stereotypes while busting myths about how librarians feel about the library and it’s patrons is included in this short and witty blog article. Issues such as quiet policies and hours of operation are mentioned.While there has been a slow push for more teacher librarians, the roles and ideals are still reinventing. I think articles like these that summarize new ways to understand how libraries and teacher librarians serve and support a library are enlightening.

10 Things Classroom Teachers Need to Know About Modern School Librarians.
From: Trust Me I’m a Librarian, Blog

Understanding by Design Framework

By Bailey, Rachel
Mchige, J. & Wiggins, G. (2012). Understanding by design framework. ASCD. Retrieved from

Summary: This article gives an overview of Understanding by Design. This method uses a backward approach to curriculum planning. The planning is broken down into 3 stages including:
1)Desired Results, 2) Evidence, and 3) Learning Plan. For the Desired Results phase teachers look at the curriculum objectives that they want the students to learn. They also consider the questions they want them to answer. For the evidence phase, authentic assessments are created. And finally for the Learning Plan, educators determine what activities they should use to get to the end result.

Evaluation: This approach makes sense to me. In order to have a plan, the end should always be in mind. In addition to these 3 steps, the article also discusses the importance of transfer of learning.

A Look Inside the Classroom of the Future

Bailey, Rachel

Mortensen, D. (2015, July 23). A look inside the classroom of the future. Edutopia. Retrieved from

Summary– This article talks about the skills students will need to succeed in the workplace of the future. All of the skills center around the idea that future workers will have jobs that require them to relate to others on a global scale. Based on an analysis of many schools, the authors have concluded that many schools are already pointing their students to a global worldview. The strategies that already in many schools include leveraging real world case studies, embracing complexity, practicing empathy, using technology to enhance learning and using reflection on a regular basis.

Evaluation– I find it interesting that the emphasis is on thinking and acting on a global nature. This is no surprise since the article states “global competence as a key pillar of quality education” according to the U.S. Department of Education. Furthermore, I liked seeing the emphasis on using reflection on a regular basis. This is encouraging since “The Big Think” has been emphasized in INFO 250.

The Four Important Models of Blended Learning Teachers Should Know About

Bailey, Rachel

The four important models of blended learning teachers should know about. (2014, April 28).   Educational Technology and Mobile Learning. Retrieved from

Summary– This article gives a quick overview of the four models of blended learning. They include: The Flipped Classroom Model, The Flex Model, The Lab Rotation Model, The Station Rotation Model. The article also includes 3 videos of schools that use the models on a day to day basis.

Evaluation- Probably my favorite model is the Flex Model. It showcases persoalized learning at its finest. For this model to work, a lot of thought and collaboration would have to happen behind the scenes and teachers would have to be willing to step out from the confines of the traditional classroom.

Teaching Tip: The Flipped Classroom

Bailey, Rachel
Mok, H. N. (2014). Teaching tip: The flipped classroom. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25 (1), 7-11

Summary- This article discusses how a college professor implemented the flipped classroom concept in one of his computer science classes. For homework, the students watched programming videos and completed online quizes about the videos. Then, they went to class armed with new information and worked with a partner to solve various coding problems. Overall, the students were positive about the flipped classroom experience.

Evaluation: I had never heard of the term “flipped classroom” before, but after reading this article, I realized that I have seen this technique in action. My last year of teaching, the math teachers in my building used this strategy, by assigning math videos for homework and then having the students tackle math problems in the classroom. 

California Fails to Meet Library Needs for Students

 School Librarians in California Under Siege

School Librarians In California Under Siege

Posted: 12/02/2011 12:53 pm EST
Retrieved from:
CO- Over-coming Barriers

The evidence shared in this article portrays a grim image of the way California School’s have dismissed the importance and need for credentialed teacher librarians. The story even accounts for one teacher librarian who was spread between three large schools choosing to quit because her ability to sustain reasonable work was unacceptable to her.
I’m pursuing a California Teacher Librarian Credential, but during this pursuit I continue to ask myself what this means? In my district, there isn’t a teacher librarian. I worry that there will never be an intention of hiring a teacher librarian. For me, chasing after a credential that may not serve myself or anyone else is the reality. I’m optimistic that if I continue on this path, California will see better days for school libraries and I will adapt to a role where I can fulfill a need in a functional education system. I want to see a standard of quality in education, and I think there’s a need for public education to define what quality means.

Discussion of Creative Learning Commons

Christopher Fluetsch

Professor Loertscher has challenged us to develop some ideas about furthering the Creative Learning Commons projects. I thought it might be useful to have a discussion about some of our ideas in this blog format instead of on the Google Doc.

Here are some of my thoughts:

How many webmixes should we create?
I think we should have webmixes for content categories of webpages – Audio/ Visual; Graphic Arts; Writing; Communications and so forth. Final webmixes titles should be determined once we have a final list of content sites. It occurs to me, perhaps too late, that we might have wished to add tags to the website entry form, to allow easier categorization.

The webmixes do not necessarily have to be mutually exclusive. A website might appear in multiple places.  The idea it to make it easier for users to find what they are looking for.

We could use webmix tile colors to denote reading level or age appropriateness.

I hesitate to place age categories on the mixes themselves, as age/ grade level is not necessarily a good predictor of student interest or ability.

How should it be organized?

If I were designing this on my own, the upper left tile on each page would link to a team created page with a quick explanation of each tile on that page.  We can draw much of the information from the Google Form answers sheet.

I like the idea of having a visual guide of the linkages between the various pages.  Perhaps a guide drawn with a program like Mindomo.

We should definitely have a tile leading to a “Suggest New Pages” form. I’d put it at the bottom right of each page, and lead to a Google Form much like the one we’ve been using.

Anyway, these are some of my ideas. Perhaps you’d like to add ideas in the Comments section and we can begin a discussion before Tuesday’s class.