Posted by Kara Carter
Boghossian, P. (2006). Behaviorism, constructivism, and socratic pedagogy. Educational Philosophy and Theory. 38(6). 713-722.
This article explores the similarities and differences in behavorism, constructivism, and most interesting, in my opinion, socratic pedagogy, which may straddle the two, those be different enough to prove more useful. Boghossian acknowledges that a shift to constructivism is consistent in education today, believing that the student will find themany different truths by being an active participant in their education, while there are still behavorists in the mix who believe that students learn the “one truth” by drills and behavior modification and conditioning.
Basically, Boghossian states that constuctivists allow students to conclude and believe in multiple realities, as long as the process is sound, because everyone’s experiences are different, whereas behaviorists expect everyone to come to the same answer based on objective observation and experimentation.
Soctratic pedagogy, however, maintains that there is, for the most part, an identifiable truth that is relevant for all involved (behaviorist), that invested students exploring the process and participating in dialogy will reach truth (constructivist), but through the act of discourse and discussion, any irrelevant or false assumptions will be discounted, using, almost, a collective consciousness methodology.
All in all, I would like to see the socratic pedagogy used more often, though, there are subjects in which I believe “reality” can be different for different learners, based on their experiences, such as criticism and interpretation of literature, poetry and art. However, science and mathematics will tend to have more rigid truths, though, those who are able to bend those absolute rules often come to breakthroughs
Posted by Kara Carter .
Reposted from class Wiki. Original summary by Jonine Bergen 05/05/2011
Oberg, D. (2006, February). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from RedOrbit, Inc. website:
Garelick, B. (2010, July 1). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design by C.A. Tomlinson and J. McTighe]. Educational Horizons, 88(4) p.199-202. P.Retrieved from http://libaccess.sjlibrary.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eft&AN=508174753&site=ehost-live
Summary: Garelick summarizes the main points of text by stating his agreement with Tomlinson and McTighe’s methods regarding Understanding By Design and it’s usefulness in Differentiated Instruction. Using tools such as backward planning, using non-rigid learning structures, and lessening focus on “drill and kill” exercises, students develop critical thinking skills by emphasizing the process rather than the product, making it easier to customize and adjust the tasks at hand to help the students reach the end result and meet common standards.
Effective learning of the material is assessed, not just on being able to achieve the correct answer, but mostly on being able to use the same processes learned in determining the solution in a different context, across fields of study. However, Garelick makes sure to point out that the authors seem to encourage the use of the “sink or swim” method, inundating students with material that may be completely over their heads with the assumption that if they can swim, they can begin learning more difficult tasks, and if they sink, they obviously need remedial training.
Reflection: I typically would not post a book review, but Garelick summarizes the main points of this book very effectively and I believe it is important to note his objection to some of the author’s recommended tactics, though most of his writing is high praise for their newer methods of thinking, focusing on an organic learning experience, rather than a contrived experience.
Having suffered from the “sink or swim” method, myself, as a student, I think it is an excellent example of how differentiated instruction of this type, and learning by design, are definitely more relevant than the archaic systems that have been used for over a century, but they still have a long way to go in meeting the needs of all students without overwhelming, confusing, and frustrating students to the point where distinterest is the least of their problems, and a general hatred of the subject or resentment of the instructor, by proxy, can occur. I believe it is important to learn from this observation to better meet the learning needs of all students.
Posted by Kara Carter
Flipped classrooms making a splash in American schools. (2012, October). Curriculum Review, 52(3), 2-3.
The article discusses the trend toward the flipped classroom in American schools, where teachers have begun sending lectures home with students to watch in the evenings so that they can dedicate class time to practicing what they’ve learned. This leaves more time for answering questions and clarifying anything that the students may be having difficulty with. It also allows students to take more time with the lectures, pausing and replaying sections that they don’t understand.
This actually seems like it would be very effective. Students would spend the same amount of time at home doing schoolwork as they did in the past, but rather than struggling with an assignment only to turn it in incomplete the following day, this way they will have access to the instructor while they’re working on it. It also allows them to work collaboratively with their peers in ways that may not have been possible when working from home.
Greene, K. (2009, Apr. 4). The History of Curriculum in America, Part II (C) [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_szKWOgxJVc
(1980’s to 2000’s) In this final series on the History of Curriculum in America, Greene identifies key points in our history that continue to dictate our nation’s public school curriculum. Starting in the 1980’s, we left off with a return to the basics due to reports of failing SAT scores. Different educational practices started to emerge like homeschool programming for everyone; introduction of phonics for reading comprehension, and a damaging article entitled A Nation at Risk which scared the entire country. At this time, the nation was in the throes of a terrible economic recession, and people were once again blaming the education system.
In the 1990’s Milwaukee was the first district in the country to offer school vouchers for parents to choose what schools they wanted their children to attend. It did not take long for this idea to spread throughout other states as well. Charter schools also popped up, with the first one in Minnesota. The geographical location of the states is important as Greene points out that throughout our nation’s history, much of the educational reform, standards, and practices, originated in the North East. Education reformists had now moved to the mid-west. However, in 1993, Massachusetts passed the Massachusetts Education Reform Act which started common curriculum and statewide assessments. Other states of course followed. Scripted curriculum took over state and district teaching standards and textbook publishers along with anyone else related to textbooks and materials started to become the drivers of the curriculum. In 1998, the Higher Education Act is amended.
Greene, K. (2009, Apr. 4). The History of Curriculum in America, Part II (B) [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6qAzQ95hGQ
(1940’s – 1970’s) In this third video in the series of four, Greene starts us off in the 1940’s. This is also the time of WWII. There were a lot of school drop-outs; the depression was still in full swing, too. More women started to move into more advanced coursework. Additionally, the GI Bill allowed for even more people to go on to college. This meant more teachers! Soon after, we experienced a post-war baby-boom. Even more teachers were needed, as well as materials. Education started to cost more as a result. Also along this time people were developing shared languages as TV brought more people together. Next came the Red Scare and that meant that teachers had to be very careful what they said in class, and strict standards were once again enforced to balance on the tightrope. Questioning was not encouraged. Also in 1957, SPUTNIK was launched and Americans became worried they were falling behind so a return to the basics was implemented so we could develop more rocket scientists.
The 60’s brought more of the same as the Space Race was in full swing. However, JFK became President and along with him and his wife, they brought Arts into society and schools followed. Art started to become cool again. It was okay to explore, invent, be different, and question. Dick and Jane finally got a black friend. Also in the 60’s came the Cuban Missile Crisis and Cuban families began migrating to Miami. Laws were signed by LBJ such as The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as a way to fight a war on poverty which was growing faster. This act meant to bring teachers to low-income schools. Another act, The Higher Education Act of 1965 increased federal funding to higher education, provided scholarships, and student loans. It also established a National Teachers Corps.